Geography as a discipline enables us to understand the Earth we are living in from a spatial perspective. It offers a systematic framework for enquiry into questions about the world that surrounds us. Geography forms a bridge between the social sciences and the physical sciences, providing an understanding of the dynamics of cultures, societies and economies on the one hand, and those of physical landscapes and environmental processes on the other.


Geography as a secondary school subject enables students to explore and understand the relationship between human beings and the Earth through the study of space, place and environment – the three elements which form the core of Geography in secondary school education. In this process, the geographical questions of “What”, “Where”, “How”, “Why” and “What if” form the basic constructs for developing a geographical framework for enquiry.


The study of geography also provides opportunities for students to develop their general intellectual capacity for lifelong learning, and for generic skills such as critical thinking, communication, information-processing, problem-solving, and decision-making. The enquiry approach adopted in Geography enables students to develop the important abilities involved in value clarification and value judgments, which are fundamental to whole-person development. Geographical education provides students with learning experiences which enable them to see the relationships between the individual, society and the environment, and through this to develop skills which can be transferred to other learning and life situations.