S1 to S3

1) Knowledge and Understanding

(a)develop a thorough understanding of major geographical concepts, including concepts of space, place, region, human-environment interaction, global interdependence and sustainable development, and apply them to a new situations and scenarios;

(b)establish a solid structure of place knowledge, which includes the knowledge and   understanding of local regions (Hong Kong and Zhujiang Delta Region), other places in China, the Asia-Pacific region and other parts of the world, as well as the   interconnectedness of these places;

(c)describe and explain the interactions between humans and the natural environment in different time and space, including the physical and human processes that involved in these interactions, and the patterns and effects caused by these interactions;

(d)understand how the natural environment affects human life and how human activities change the natural environment; and

(e)develop awareness and understanding of major global issues and understand how to manage and / or resolved these issues in a sustainable way.

(f)S1 to S3 Learning Content Outline:




  • Using urban space wisely
  • Food problems
  • Map Reading Skills


  • The trouble with water
  • Global shift in manufacturing industry
  • Map Reading Skills


  • Changing climate, Changing environments
  • Living with Natural Hazards
  • Map Reading Skills


2) Skills

(a)think geographically, guided by the following questions:

i) “Where is it?” and “What is it like?”

ii) “Why is it there?” and “How did it happen?”

iii) “How and why is it changing?”

iv) “What impacts does it have?”

v) “How should it be managed?”


(b) master basic geographical enquiry skills, including the ability to :

i) ask geographical questions;

ii) locate and collect information and data relevant to the enquiry from a variety of sources;

iii) organise and present information and data in appropriate formats; and

iv) analyse and interpret information and data for drawing conclusions.


(c) master basic geographical skills, including the ability to :

i) read and interpret different types of atlases, maps and plans at a variety of scales;

ii) construct maps and plans using symbols, annotations, keys and scales;

iii)read and interpret different types of photographs and satellite images; and

iv)select and use appropriate graphical and IT techniques to present data on maps and diagrams (e.g. pie charts, GIS).


(d)master basic competencies, e.g. communication skills, critical thinking skills and creativity, through the enquiry of geographical issues, including the ability to:

i) communicate and exchange ideas in appropriate ways, in particular the use of IT (e.g. PowerPoint presentation, sharing of fieldwork data via e-mail);

ii) assess the information collected, and determine what and what not to believe; and

iii) view situations from different perspectives, such as to explore the diverse responses of people living in different places towards natural hazards from perspectives other than spatial and ecological, e.g. cultural, economic,political and socially responsible perspectives.


3) Values and Attitudes

(a)be commit to actions conducive to a better environment and to the sustainability of theworld;

(b)develop a sense of belonging to our society and nation, and be willing to take action for the betterment of our society and nation;

(c)be aware of the increasing global interdependence and the importance of international cooperation in handling global issues;

(d)show concern for the people who are less privileged and who are suffering from various types of problems; and

(e)develop an understanding and respect for other people, their values, cultures and ways of life.

S4 to S6

1) Knowledge and understanding
Students are expected to develop knowledge and understanding of:
(a) how natural environments influence human activities, and how human activities alter natural environments;

(b) the changing development of geographical phenomena and issues in terms of space and time;

(c) the characteristics and functioning of major natural environments, through analysing the processes and interactions within and between them;

(d) the characteristics and development of major human activities, in order to achieve a sense of “region”; and

(e) the issues arising from people-environment interactions and the human responses to such issues, as well as the implications of these human responses for resource management.

2) Skills

(a)    geographical enquiry skills, including the ability to:

        (i)    identify and ask questions from a geographical perspective;

        (ii)   locate, select and extract appropriate information and data from primary and secondary                    sources (e.g. the field, surveys, documents, maps, charts, ground and aerial photos and                     Geographic Information System [GIS] data), which require the ability to observe and                       record data systematically and accurately;

        (iii)   present and organise information and data, which involves the ability to:

  • use appropriate techniques for summarising (e.g. descriptive statistics such as measures of central tendency and variability);
  • use appropriate formats, such as texts (e.g. reports, tables, summaries, etc.) and illustrations (such as maps, diagrams, models, sketches, and graphs);

        (iv) compare, analyse, synthesise and evaluate, in order to interpret information and data

                for making inferences and drawing conclusions, which includes:

  • the use of appropriate statistical techniques (e.g. correlation);
  • analysis of spatial patterns using GIS.

        (v)   evaluate the findings, solutions or conclusions drawn from enquiry.


(b)    generic skills of communication, critical thinking, problem-solving and creativity through geographical enquiry, in particular the ability to:

        (i)    select appropriate means of effective communication;

        (ii)   draw out meaning from information, and determine what and what not to believe;

       (iii)  analyse problems through logical reasoning, and determine the optimal course of action                      from a number of alternatives;

        (iv)  view situations from different perspectives and adopt appropriate approaches to analyse                    problems.

3)   Values and attitudes

        Students are expected to develop values and attitudes that will enable them to:

        (a)   have a sense of wonder and curiosity about peoples, places and environments;

        (b)   show respect for all peoples, and their cultures, values and ways of life;

        (c)   recognise environmental problems and take appropriate action to promote sustainable                     development;

        (d)   cultivate a sense of belonging to society and the nation and become active and responsible

                citizens; and

        (e)    be aware of the increasing global interdependence of peoples and nations, and appreciate

                the importance of international solidarity and cooperation.

The curriculum comprises a compulsory part and an elective part.

The Compulsory Part comprises seven geographical issues and problems that have strong relevance for Hong Kong students and are expected to be of considerable public concern for a reasonable period of time. They are structured around three major themes, namely “Living with our physical environment”, “Facing changes in the human environment” and “Confronting global challenges”.


Living with our physical environment


        (1)    Opportunities and Risks – Is it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?

        (2)    Managing Rivers and Coastal Environments: A continuing challenge


Facing changes in the human environment


        (3)    Changing Industrial Location – How and why does it change over space and time?

        (4)    Building a Sustainable City – Are environmental conservation and urban development

                 mutually exclusive?


Confronting global challenges


        (5)    Combating Famine – Is technology a panacea for food shortage?

        (6)    Disappearing Green Canopy – Who should pay for the massive deforestation in

                 rainforest regions?

        (7)    Climate Change – Long-term fluctuation or irreversible trend?


Students study two out of four electives. The Elective Part aims at broadening the scope of study by introducing other major branches of geography that have not been incorporated into the Compulsory Part of the curriculum. The four electives are as follows:

(1) Dynamic Earth: the building of Hong Kong

(2) Weather and Climate

(3) Transport Development, Planning and Management

(4) Regional Study of Zhujiang (Pearl River) Delta